You know accessibility is important, right?
If not, check out our blog category with accessibility resources and other helpful accessibility articles. It doesn’t matter if you think you have people who need it or not, you do need it.
This article focuses solely on making Microsoft Word documents accessible. This one is often overlooked just as performance support is often overlooked. We just published a checklist resource to ensure your Microsoft Word documents are accessible. This blog post covers all the details of each item in more detail.
It’s easy to throw some performance support in a Word document and call it good in the name of formatting it pretty. Unfortunately, it’s not always that easy. There are many things you can’t and shouldn’t do in Word. If you aren’t paying attention then your document could be a nightmare for those who use assistive technology.
Accessibility needs to be at the forefront of our minds when designing documents for all organizations. There could be legal repercussions if that’s not done and making things accessible is also the right thing to do.
Making a document accessible ensures it can be read by everyone regardless of their physical or mental abilities and impairments. It allows everyone access to the same high-quality content.
There are some basic things you may already know (and if not then now’s a great time to learn!) such as creating alt texts for images. But there’s more to accessibility than that. This post will help show you some of those things and how easy it is to make documents accessible.
Why Accessibility Is Essential
When creating a Word document, it’s important to think about accessibility. Accessibility ensures that the document is readable and understandable for everyone, regardless of their physical or mental abilities, impairments, or disabilities.
This means that everyone can easily access and use the information presented in the document. Accessibility also helps people with disabilities use the same content as everyone else, allowing them to gain the same level of understanding of the material.
Disabilities vary a lot and are hard to pin down as black and white. For instance, I wear glasses so my disability would be poor eyesight but someone else might have worse eyesight or even none at all. It’s important to accommodate all those levels of disabilities whether they’re reported or not.
Most organizations don’t know everyone’s disabilities because many go underreported. The majority go unreported. Many of these methods of making Word documents accessible will benefit those with severe disabilities just the same as they’ll benefit those with minor disabilities.
I’ll use color contrast as an example. It doesn’t matter if you consider yourself to have a disability or not, reading text with low contrast is difficult, especially on a computer screen. By keeping these things in mind you’re formatting your content to be helpful to everyone.
Can you read this?
See how color contrast can make your content hard to use for everyone? Lots of ways of creating accessible content that benefits everyone, not just those with disabilities.
These 12 ways of making Word documents accessible will likely help a much larger audience than those each of them is intended to help.
The 12 Ways To Make Microsoft Word Documents Accessible
Microsoft Word accessibility is relatively easy to navigate with this list. You’re also welcome to download the Microsoft Word accessibility checklist we put together to help you make sure every document is accessible.
These ways of making Word documents accessible came partially from our knowledge and also partially from the AED COP video resources available on the Section508.gov website. They go into a lot more detail than this article if you want more details. Each video covers an introduction, how to author accessibly, how to check your work, inaccessible example, and also accessible examples. The entire series will take you just under an hour to watch.
But, we put this together to capture the gist of the videos and provide you with the most important parts in a lot less than an hour.
The images in this post are all captured on the Microsoft Word version for Mac but the Windows version is nearly identical. Any difference is very small since Microsoft made both versions similar a while back.
So onward with our first method of making Microsoft Word documents accessible.
Inline Text Boxes, Images, and Objects
All text boxes, images, and objects need to be in line with text. This ensures screen readers know the order that the content needs to be read. If things aren’t in line then the content won’t make much sense to someone with low or no vision.
Here’s how you can make anything in line with the text.
Step 1: Select the text box, object, or image.
Step 2: Click the Shape Format tab in the Microsoft Word ribbon.
Step 3: Click the Position button.
Step 4: Click the In Line with Text button.
That’s it! Your text box, object, or image is now in line with the text. You have more limited ability to move the item but it’s accessible and makes sense in the flow of your content. In-line items are the only ones accessible, there’s no way to freely move items while still having them accessible.
Describe Images & Objects
There are three options for this one. You may already know about alt text but there are some other ways to provide information for objects and images.
Here are the three options for describing the content of images and objects in Microsoft Word:
- Provide alternate (alt) text.
- Use a descriptive caption.
- Provide information near the object or image or in the appendix.
Just make sure you provide a good description that’s 250 characters or less for important objects or images. Don’t provide descriptions for decorative images or objects. We put together a short video about document accessibility that covers the alt text method and provides more context about providing good alt text also.
Here’s how to do each one.
You can right-click on the image but these instructions go through using the Word ribbon. Here’s how to add alternate text to an image in Word. It works the same way for objects.
Step 1: Selec the image or object.
Step 2: Click the Picture Format tab in the Word ribbon.
Step 3: Click the Alt Text button.
Step 4: Type in a good alternate description that’s less than 250 characters long.
Note: Microsoft Word stock images already come with alt text but you will likely want to update it or mark it as decorative if it has no functional purpose in the document.
Option a: If an image has no functional purpose in the document, mark it as decorative.
Option b: You can take your chances at Word’s ability to provide valuable alt text through AI. I don’t recommend using it but you’re welcome to try!
That’s it! Now screen readers will read the provided alt text in place of the image.
You can also put a caption below the image using Word’s caption tool. Here’s how to do that.
Step 1: Right-click on your image or object.
Step 2: Click Insert Caption…
Step 3: Type in a descriptive caption no longer than 250 characters.
Step 4: Click the OK button.
Now you have a caption below the image. Word also puts in the Figure 1 text but you can manually edit that out as I did above.
Information Near Object Or In Appendix
This one doesn’t require any visuals to explain. If the written content sufficiently describes an image and it’s obvious you’re describing the image then you don’t need to duplicate that information since the screen reader has already read it.
Alternately, if the image information isn’t essential right then and there but is still helpful you can describe what’s in the image in the appendix as long as you refer to where more information can be obtained in the appendix. You can find more information about how to create an appendix in the Microsoft Word help article.
Sufficient Color Contrast
There are lots of different ways you can check the actual color contrast of your text. I urge you always to use these tools whether you’re using different color text or even deciding on the colors for your brand (yes, we used it). These tools will always help you determine if the text color you’re using against the background color has sufficient contrast.
There are also things to consider with contrast such as size too. So it’s not just about color.
Here are the general guidelines for contrast in documents:
- Standard Text (anything not bold but less than 18pt): 4.5:1 contrast ratio.
- Bold text or 18pt or great regular weight text: 3.5:1 contrast ratio.
You can use the Color Contract Analyzer (CCA) by TPGi which is a downloadable tool or you can use this online tool: WebAIM Contrast Checker. Just input the foreground color and background color to get the ratio. It’ll tell you if you meet the correct contrast ratios for different text types.
You can see the colors I chose above have a contrast ratio of 4.75:1. This is great for most tests except for WCAG AAA which is more strict than even the Section 508 guidance. WCAG is a standard for accessibility on the internet. It’s also a good rule of thumb to stick to it for the most part in Word too.
Word also has a basic contrast checker built-in but it doesn’t tell you the actual contrast ratio, just that you don’t meet it.
This is what you’ll see along the bottom of the screen and when you click it a menu will open on the side that says “hard to read text contrast.” That’s helpful but not helpful enough. Use contrast ratio checkers to make it easy on yourself.
Descriptive File Name
No visuals are needed for this either. Just make sure you name the Word file a descriptive name that makes it easy to understand what’s in it. Also, be sure you always use the .docx file format.
A bad file name would be something like untitled.docx whereas a good name would be “Microsoft Word Accessibility Checklist.docx” which makes it easy to know what’s in the document without opening it. Better yet, you can also include the version number in the file name if you have multiple versions of the same file.
Microsoft Word has built-in styles for headings, subtitles, titles, etc. Use these styles to create a hierarchy in your document rather than using size and bold to do this. Screen readers can’t infer hierarchy by formatting but they can from Word’s built-in styles.
Above is an example of the Word styles menu that you can also expand by clicking the small tab on the bottom. There are plenty of options to create a good visual hierarchy and you can also change the look of the text once you set the style. Even if you change the text format screen readers will still see the hierarchy as long as you don’t change it.
Here’s what some header levels look like in a Word document.
It’s as simple as that, just use the styles from Word to create a visual hierarchy, not formatting, and size. You can even get more complex and use tools to change the default styles in Word to make your document consistent and easy to manage for you while still being fully accessible.
Screen readers won’t read items in a list if you don’t use the official built-in list styles in Word. Did you know that?
If you didn’t then now you do. Don’t use dashes, asterisks, numbers, or anything else to make lists ordered or unordered. Always use the buttons for creating lists in Word and adjust them as needed.
If you want a list that looks like dashes then click the drop-down arrow next to the button and select Define New Bullet…
That way you can select any symbol from the list and make your list look like whatever you want while still using the built-in functionality for lists in Word.
Don’t use spacing or tabs to create the look of columns in Word. Instead, use the columns button to make any number of columns you need. You can even create columns in only one part of your document rather than the whole page.
What happens if you use spaces or tabs to create the look of columns?
The content is read in screen readers from left to right across all the columns and then the next line from left to right. In other words, the content will read quite oddly to someone using a screen reader. When you use columns screen readers know to read left to right and top to bottom for each column instead of across the entire line.
Without screen readers, we can read these two columns properly.
But for a screen reader, it would read like this: Beauty is not in the face; beauty is a light in the heart. The best and most and most beautiful things in the world cannot be – Khalil Gibran seen or even touched – they must be felt with the heart.” – Helen Keller
That reads quite odd if you read across the columns but that’s exactly what happens when you don’t use columns in Word and instead opt for spaces or tabs.
Moral of the story? Use columns not spacing or tabs.
This one only applies if you include some text with a different language in your Word document. So, perhaps you have a document that’s written in English but include one quote in Spanish within the text. You must mark that quote as being in Spanish.
When you set the correct language, assistive technology can read and pronounce the other language correctly.
Here’s how you change the language for a portion of your document.
Step 1: Select the portion of text that’s in a different language.
Step 2: Click the Review tab in the Word ribbon.
Step 3: Click the Language button.
Step 4: Choose the language of your text.
Step 5: Click the OK button.
That’s it! Now the spelling squiggles will go away because Word will know that section of the text is the language you set. Not only that but that information will be read correctly. If you click the Language button again you’ll see that both English and Spanish are used in the document in my example.
Those two languages above are what’s used in my document. Anything above the double line is marked somewhere in the document. Apparently, Word isn’t very good at detecting languages automatically because as you can see that option is selected and it still didn’t detect it.
Unambiguous Link Names
Never use the link name “click here” or anything similarly vague. Always make the link the part that describes the content that is in the link. It could be email us and a link to an email address or it could be similar to a blog post title with a link to the blog post.
If you scroll up in this blog post you’ll see how I made the links descriptive instead of just click here to read about XYZ with only the click here linked. Click here isn’t even good text to use at all because you don’t know how people are going to use the link. They could be tapping, clicking, or something else entirely.
The above image is a great example of a descriptive link. The text “Microsoft Word accessibility checklist” is highlighted and it links to the resources page where people can find the checklist. If you want to check out the checklist, you also can find it on our resources page.
Layout & Data Tables
This one is a bit more detailed and complex. First, let me define layout tables vs. data tables.
Layout tables are used to laying out content in a very specific way whether you show the borders or not. A good example is if you used a table to place three images next to each other.
A data table is used to display data in a table format. So you could put data into a table format such as a calendar with the days of the week and dates in each cell below that. There are also two types of data tables. They can be simple or complex. The example I gave, a calendar with dates is a simple table.
There are also complex data tables that have merged cells which makes them more complex and also not accessible. So, don’t use complex data tables with merged cells if you want your document to be accessible.
Complex tables are not accessible.
To make a table accessible in Word you simply need to create the table in Word rather than pasting it from somewhere else. In addition to that, you must include only one piece of information or data point per cell. In other words, don’t include multiple lines of text in one cell to line up information.
If you have a header row in your table such as in my example where I have the days of the week, you need to mark that row as a header row in Word.
Here’s how to do that.
Step 1: Click on the row you want to make the header (this should be the top row).
Step 2: Click the Layout tab in the ribbon.
Step 3: Click the Repeat Header Rows button.
That’s it! You now have an accessible table as long as it’s simple (no merged cells), created in Word, it’s in line with text (yes tables are an object), and the header row is marked properly.
Duplicated Header, Footer, Watermark Content
If you have content in your header, footer, or a watermark in Word, that information won’t be ready by screen readers. So, you must duplicate that content in the document itself also.
So, if your document is marked as draft in the header be sure to also say it’s a draft in the content.
It’s as simple as making sure important information from the header, footer, or wordmark is duplicated in the content also.
Notice how the header in the image above has important information. People need to know this is a draft document therefore I also duplicated that information in the body content.
Accessible Embedded Files
Just like multimedia needs to be accessible when it’s on its own, it also needs to be accessible when embedded in Microsoft Word. That means your audio, video, and multimedia files all need to be accessible. You can provide the necessary information for accessible embeds in many different ways.
- Audio Only: Provide a text transcript just below the embedded audio file.
- Video Only: Provide a text description of everything that happens in the video.
- Multimedia: Provide a text transcript (or closed captions) as well as a description of what happens in the video.
There isn’t a great way to do any of them without having the text go along with the video or audio. But, if you’re working with video then it’s best to use a video hosting platform and include subtitles or captions with your video also.
Embedding objects in Word is pretty complex and the support is lacking, though, so your best bet might be to not embed any media files into Word directly. That’s up to you but just be aware that they should also be accessible with full transcripts and/or time-synchronized captions.
Use The Word Accessibility Checker
If you’re not sure if your document is accessible then Microsoft Word (and all other Office applications) have a handy dandy tool built in to help you out. We wrote about it in more detail previously so you may want to check out our article about the Microsoft Office accessibility checker which also has info about checking PDFs.
Here’s a quick overview of the accessibility checker. At the bottom of Word, you’ll see the checker. When you click it you’ll get a list of things that aren’t accessible or might not be accessible. It’s not 100% accurate and can’t check everything so use it as a guide but don’t let it have the final say.
Here’s how you access and use the accessibility checker.
Step 1: Click the Accessibility button at the bottom of your document.
Step 2: Expand items to see what needs to be corrected and click on each one.
Step 3: Review why you should fix the issue and if possible steps to fix the issue.
Word guides how to fix most issues and as you click on the issue will also select the object that’s an issue. It’s a handy way to see the main accessibility issues in your Microsoft Word documents.
If you stick to these methods of creating an accessible Word document then you’ll create better content that’s accessible to all. If you export your Word document to a PDF then you should also check that as well because some things are different for PDF documents. We have a handy dandy article that will help you check your PDF documents for accessibility.
As you can see most of making a Word document accessible isn’t difficult. By following the steps outlined above, you can easily make sure all your training documents are accessible to all. It’s a great way to make sure everyone can benefit from your content regardless of their physical or mental abilities.
Not only that but I’m sure you probably saw several ways that everyone will benefit from accessible content and not just a few. Some of them also make things a bit easier on yourself such as no more red squiggly lines under a different language.
If you haven’t checked it out already, be sure to head over to our resources page and download the Microsoft Word accessibility checklist. It will help you make accessible documents every time without missing a single important check.
And, if you’re in the market for or need some assistance creating awesome training content that’s also accessible, schedule a free consultation and we’d be happy to discuss your next technical project and your training needs.